When creating individualized print output, templates with fixed and variable contents, whose positions and appearance are defined, are usually used. The variable components are filled with values that are stored in a database, for example, individual invoice items. The variable and fixed contents are then combined during output. For more complex requirements, there are different page templates, e.g. for the first, for the last and for any number of pages in between. As a rule, proprietary techniques have been used up to now; unlike on the web, there is no common standard for the individualization of PDF files.
There are a number of tools that generate PDF files from pages defined in HTML and CSS.
However, there is still a fundamental problem when creating individualized PDF pages or files: Only one PDF could be created at a time. For individualization, however, depending on the data to be linked with the layout/template, a large number of PDFs - or many pages in a PDF are required.